Plant Talk | Science Talk

Google’s Eric Schmidt & Sloan Foundation’s Doron Weber on NYBG and World Flora Online

Posted in Events on May 19th, 2015 by Stevenson Swanson – Be the first to comment

Thirty-Fourth Annual Founders Corporate DinnerAt the recent 34th annual Founders Corporate Dinner, The New York Botanical Garden saluted two generous funders—Google Inc. and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation—for their support of NYBG’s leading role in World Flora Online (WFO), a global project to create the definitive online scientific resource about plants.

NYBG Board member Sigourney Weaver presented the Garden’s Founders Award to Eric Schmidt, Google’s Executive Chairman, in appreciation of Google’s major financial and technical support for the Garden’s work on WFO.

In accepting the award, Schmidt said WFO would be “open, free, and available forever” and called it “a genuine sea change. All of us at Google love this partnership!”
read more »

Here Comes The Sun Science Club: Sunny Thoughts from an NYBG Botanist

Posted in Interesting Plant Stories on May 12th, 2015 by Stevenson Swanson – Be the first to comment

Stevenson Swanson is the Garden’s Science Media Manager.

Perennial Garden New York Botanical Garden
What does the sun do? That question was posed recently by Science Friday, the incomparable science news program that airs on public radio stations nationwide. To kick off its latest Science Club education activity, the program asked a number of scientists and solar experts for their thoughts about why the sun matters.

As you might imagine, how you think about the sun depends largely on what you do. Ernest Moniz, the U. S. Secretary of Energy, talked about the sun as a source of energy. A psychiatrist talked about the sun’s influence on our mood.

What about a botanist? The program asked Barbara A. Ambrose, Ph.D., who is Cullman Associate Curator for Plant Genomics at The New York Botanical Garden, to ponder the role of the sun in the world of plants. Here’s her thought-provoking answer:

What does the sun do?

The sun provides energy. Plants transform the sun’s energy into stored chemical energy during photosynthesis. This is an amazing process in which plants take carbon dioxide, water, and the sun’s photons and produce carbohydrates and oxygen. These carbohydrates are the stored chemical energy that allows plants to grow and develop into the food we eat and the flowers we enjoy. Plants have evolved for hundreds of millions of years to harness the energy of the sun efficiently and effectively, something we humans have yet to perfect. What’s really cool is that a byproduct of this reaction is oxygen–the air we need to breathe.

You can read the responses of other experts, as well as hear Dr. Ambrose read her explanation, at the Science Friday site here. You can also share your own thoughts on that page’s comments section or in our comments box.

And if you talk about this with your friends, just remember: the oxygen you’re using to speak came from a sunbeam striking a leaf.

Breakfast in a Blast: The Invention of Puffed Cereal at NYBG

Posted in Nuggets from the Archives on May 8th, 2015 by Lisa Vargues – 1 Comment

Lisa Vargues is a Curatorial Assistant at The New York Botanical Garden’s William and Lynda Steere Herbarium. Her work includes digitizing plant specimens, historical and new, from around the world for the C. V. Starr Virtual Herbarium.

puffed rice cereal

Bowl of puffed rice image courtesy of Lisa Vargues.

In December 1901, Nathaniel Lord Britton, the New York Botanical Garden’s Director, reportedly (and understandably) appeared to be a little worried when a succession of blasts, sounding like gunshots, erupted from a third-floor lab in what is now the Library building. Thankfully, nothing was amiss. Botanist Alexander Pierce Anderson was immersed in a successful experiment that would not only prove a scientific theory but also transform breakfast for millions of people.

With suitable precautions, Anderson had used a hammer to crack open hermetically sealed and heated glass tubes, each containing corn starch, wheat flour, and, later, rice and other grains. All of the starch particles in the tubes had exploded, proving the theory, proposed by plant physiologist Dr. Heinrich Meyer, that a starch granule contains a miniscule amount of condensed water within its nucleus.

The heading from Anderson’s “cereal product” patent.

The heading from Anderson’s “cereal product” patent. Courtesy of the Archives of The New York Botanical Garden.

read more »

A Kudzu Impersonator Lining New York-area Roads

Posted in Interesting Plant Stories on May 1st, 2015 by Scott Mori – Be the first to comment

Scott A. Mori, Ph.D, is a Curator Emeritus associated with the Institute of Systematic Botany at The New York Botanical Garden. His research interests are the ecology, classification, and conservation of tropical rain forest trees.

Ampelopsis Green VeilIf you have noticed a plant forming a green veil over utility poles or vegetation along roads and parkways in the New York metropolitan area, you probably thought that it was the notorious kudzu vine, a member of the pea family that has been well publicized as a fast-growing invasive plant.

Although kudzu has been reported in New York, it is not the invasive plant found along the Saw Mill River Parkway and other roadways. This plant is a member of the grape family (Vitaceae) and is called the porcelain berry (Ampelopsis brevipedicellata) because of its beautifully colored fruits. These two invasive plants can be distinguished from one another by the porcelain berry’s simple, lobed leaves; presence of delicate tendrils; small greenish flowers; and berry fruits. By contrast, kudzu has compound leaves (a leaf divided into separate leaflets); robust tendrils; larger, pea-like flowers; and legume fruits resembling peapods.

The porcelain berry, introduced from Asia as an ornamental plant, escaped from cultivation and has become one of the worst invasive plants in our area. The veil of green that it produces deprives all other plants of sunlight, water, and nutrients.

In early spring the porcelain berry appears as a massive tangle of stems, sprawling over low vegetation along the roadside and up into trees. The plant’s tendrils facilitate its climb into tree tops. The flowers produce abundant nectar that attracts swarms of small bees, wasps, and other insects, thereby facilitating the production of fruits.

The plant’s fruits are small, spherical berries with a pulp surrounding the seeds. They are multicolored, ranging from white to lavender to blue, with dark spots adorning their outer surfaces. The fruits are consumed by animals, especially birds, which disperse their seeds into new areas. Currently, the leaves have not yet flushed out, so it is possible to see that few, if any, other plants are able to compete with the porcelain berry.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

The accompanying images show the stages that the porcelain berry goes through during the year. The first image shows how the porcelain berry looks now. To limit this invasive from invading new habitats, do not cultivate it and pull out any young plants that you encounter! Once the porcelain berry becomes established, it is extremely difficult to eradicate.

For information about another invasive plant that is currently flushing new leaves, click on Japanese barberry.

Transplants: New Jersey Lichens Find New Home at NYBG

Posted in Interesting Plant Stories on April 30th, 2015 by Science Talk – Be the first to comment

Jessica L. Allen is a graduate student at the Commodore Mathew Perry Graduate Studies Program, and James C. Lendemer, Ph.D., is an Assistant Curator at the Institute of Systematic Botany, both at The New York Botanical Garden. Lichens are their primary research interest.

This composite image shows, on the left,  a lichen-covered tree in a healthy forest in the Black Mountains of North Carolina and, on the right, how most trees in New York City look.

This composite image shows, on the left, a lichen-covered tree in a healthy forest in the Black Mountains of North Carolina and, on the right, how most trees in New York City look.

Most trees and rocks in New York City look naked, while trees in wilder parts of the United States wear a vibrant, colorful coat. What causes that? It’s because after centuries of changes to the environment, many lichens have been pushed from our urban or suburban landscapes and into the wilderness.

Lichens are fungi that, in addition to forming beautiful mosaics on trees and rocks, are critical to maintaining healthy environments. Unfortunately they are also extremely sensitive to air pollution and disturbance. That is why if you grew up in New York, and many other cities, you might think that bare trees and rocks are normal.

The good news is that, like the oysters that are slowly returning to New York harbor, there are more lichens in New York City now than there were 30 years ago. Yet there are still hundreds of species that were once found in the metropolitan area and are no longer here. We decided to investigate whether or not more lichens could survive in the city if we just gave them a little help getting here. read more »

Digitizing in the Dominican Republic

Posted in From the Field, Travelogue on April 23rd, 2015 by Stephen Gottschalk – Be the first to comment

Stephen Gottschalk, a former Project Coordinator for the William and Lynda Steere Herbarium, is now a graduate student in the Commodore Matthew Perry Graduate Studies Program at The New York Botanical Garden.

Stephen Gottschalk field books Science Talk Herbarium

The NYBG team at work in the Dominican Republic

Though many botanists specialize in Caribbean flora, few have so thoroughly documented the plant life of a single island, especially a large one, as has Thomas Zanoni, Ph.D., who lived and worked in the Dominican Republic for 13 years. His collections number in the tens of thousands and come from nearly every corner of Hispaniola, which comprises the countries of Haiti and the Dominican Republic.

Last year, my colleagues Stella Sylva and Brandy Watts and I traveled to the Dominican Republic to work on a project at the Dr. Rafael M. Moscoso National Botanical Garden (Jardín Botánico Nacional Dr. Rafael M. Moscoso) in Santo Domingo. Our purpose was to image the field books of Dr. Zanoni.

Making a collection as large as Dr. Zanoni’s digitally available to botanists across the globe is challenging. If one person were to work 40 hours a week typing out the information on each of his specimen labels, the job would likely take more than a year. Of course, that doesn’t include the time it would take to first find each of Dr. Zanoni’s 30,000-plus specimens, which are dispersed throughout not only our 7.4-million-specimen William and Lynda Steere Herbarium but also herbaria in other countries. read more »

Learning About Lichens: A New Guide to this Important but Overlooked Group From NYBG Press

Posted in Books: Past and Present on April 20th, 2015 by Stevenson Swanson – Be the first to comment

Stevenson Swanson is the Garden’s Science Media Manager.

Common Lichens of Northeastern North America from NYBG PressLichens, those often colorful and sometimes exotic-looking organisms found growing on rocks, soil, and the bark of trees, have not gotten the respect they deserve, but a new book from The New York Botanical Garden Press may help change that.

Designed to be a user-friendly reference for non-specialists, Common Lichens of Northeastern North America is a light and easy-to-use field guide that covers the rich lichen flora of northeastern North America. Amateur naturalists, nature interpreters, forestry workers, land surveyors, researchers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about lichens will benefit from this book.

What are lichens, and why are they important?

Straddling the boundary between plants and fungi, lichens are composite organisms formed by the combination of a fungus and a plant-like component—usually an alga or a type of bacteria that contains chlorophyll. They are important to the full functioning of an ecosystem, and their presence or absence is an indicator of the health of that ecosystem. read more »

Open Sesame: An Intern Works to Reveal the Mystery behind a Common Food Plant

Posted in Interesting Plant Stories on April 10th, 2015 by Genelle Diaz – Be the first to comment

Genelle Diaz-Silveira is a master’s student in biology at New York University who is completing her thesis at The New York Botanical Garden.

Harpagophytum procumbens Devil's Claw

Harpagophytum procumbens (a.k.a. Devil’s Claw)

In a world saturated with technology, it’s hard to remember the importance of plants to our daily lives. We depend on them for oxygen, food, medicine, clean air, and aesthetic pleasures, yet we devote less mental energy to them than we do to our smartphones and social media accounts.

Luckily, scientists at The New York Botanical Garden do spend some time thinking about plants. By documenting how plants function, how they are related to one another, and what they require from their environment, we aim to learn more about how life evolved on Earth and how we can continue to sustain it.

As a student researcher at the Botanical Garden, I’m doing my part by constructing a phylogeny—an evolutionary family tree—of the plant family Pedaliaceae. Commonly known as the sesame family, Pedaliaceae is rich in species that are both economically and medicinally useful. Examples include Sesamum orientale, which is cultivated for sesame oil, and Harpagophytum procumbens, which is used to treat joint pain caused by arthritis.

Harpagophytum procumbens Devil's Claw

Harpagophytum procumbens gets its colloquial name from the plant’s hooked fruit.

It’s the latter species—colloquially called “Devil’s Claw” due to its hooked fruit—that has inspired scientists here to resolve the muddied Pedaliaceae family tree. If we can paint a clear picture of how the family relates to its members as well as to those families closest to it, we may be able to forge a path to future drug discovery.

To elucidate the evolutionary history of Pedaliaceae, I’m primarily using molecular techniques. I’ve extracted DNA from multiple species—at least one representative of each genus—and begun to sequence different genes for each plant sample. The sequences will reveal genetic similarities and differences among my specimens. By analyzing the DNA data, I can come up with a good idea of how Pedaliaceae fits into the mosaic of plant life.

On its face, this may seem like a fairly straightforward endeavor. I obtain samples, extract DNA, sequence the DNA, and make a tree with the data. In actuality, the project has been full of mystery. That is to say, there are only a few contemporary scientists who have devoted time to Pedaliaceae, and herbarium specimens can be hard to come by in the US. These extra difficulties have made the journey extremely exciting.

Evolution can be messy; genetic distinctions among plant species are not always made clear by their physical characteristics. Unresolved families like Pedaliaceae often tentatively include orphan species that don’t clearly fit into one group or another. As this will be one of the first molecular studies of Pedaliaceae, I hope my results will provide enough evidence to definitively place those species. For the time being, I’m just happy to add to the naturalists’ tradition of cataloguing life.

Taking Conservation to a New Level: A Talk with the Garden’s Vice President for Conservation Strategy

Posted in Personalities in Science on April 8th, 2015 by Stevenson Swanson – Be the first to comment

Stevenson Swanson is the Garden’s Science Media Manager.

Brian Boom New York Botanical Garden ConservationThe New York Botanical Garden recently established a new Conservation Program to increase its effectiveness as a global leader in conservation. Heading up this new initiative is Brian M. Boom, Ph.D., Bassett Maguire Curator of Botany and Director of the NYBG Press and Science Outreach.

Dr. Boom, who now has the additional title of Vice President for Conservation Strategy, has been at the Garden for nearly three decades. A specialist in the Rubiaceae (the coffee family), he was previously the Director of the Botanical Garden’s Caribbean Biodiversity Program, with overall responsibility for the creation, operation, and management of the institution’s botanical research and conservation initiatives in the Caribbean.

I sat down with Dr. Boom in his office on the fourth floor of the Garden’s Library Building to ask him about the new Conservation Program’s goals and initiatives. read more »

Take Note, Easter Bunny: Witches’ Broom Disease Sweeping World’s Chocolate Supply

Posted in Interesting Plant Stories on April 3rd, 2015 by Elizabeth Kiernan – Be the first to comment

Elizabeth Kiernan is a project coordinator for the William and Lynda Steere Herbarium at The New York Botanical Garden. She is currently working on a program to document the biodiversity of the Amazonian region of South America.

[Editor’s note: Easter is the second-biggest holiday for candy sales in the U.S., according to the National Confectioners’ Association, with sales of $2.1 billion in 2012. Each year, candy companies produce 90 million chocolate Easter bunnies.]

Moniliophthora perniciosa mushrooms on a cacao pod. (Photo: Google Images)

Moniliophthora perniciosa mushrooms on a cacao pod. (Photo: Google Images)

Chocolate lovers beware! Witches’ broom disease is your worst enemy. This fungal disease attacks Theobroma cacao, the tree from which chocolate is derived, and it has so altered chocolate production that in a generation no one may remember what chocolate as we knew it once tasted like.

T. cacao grows in the tropical rainforests of South America and West Africa. Here at The New York Botanical Garden, several cacao trees can be found in the Lowland Rain Forest Galleries of the Enid A. Haupt Conservatory, and there are preserved, dried specimens in the William and Lynda Steere Herbarium.

Humans unknowingly set the stage for the spread of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the aggressive fungus responsible for witches’ broom disease. To maximize the supply of cacao beans, which are used to make cocoa powder and chocolate, large monocultures of cacao trees were planted in South and Central America in the early 1900s from a selected handful of seeds, chosen for their delectability. This unintentionally placed the trees in a fragile position, since genetically similar populations are more at risk of succumbing to devastating pathogens. The fungus first appeared in Ecuador in the 1920s and has since spread throughout the Neotropics. Ten years after first being spotted in Bahia, Brazil, nearly 75 percent of the native cacao trees have been eradicated. read more »